Lawyers & Judges » JOHN MARSHALL
|Full name||: John Marshall|
|Alias||: John Marshall|
|Animals||: The Pig|
|Father||: Thomas Marshall|
|Mother||: Mary Isham Keith|
|Wife||: Mary Willis Ambler|
|Children||: Thomas, Jacquelin, Mary, John, James, Charles, Edward|
|Education||: College of William and Mary|
|Activists||: Lawyers & Judges|
John Marshall is the legendary figure who played a crucial role in shaping the American Constitutional law. He was responsible for making the Supreme Court of the United States an important institution along with legislature and executive. He was the leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and also served in the United States House of Representatives. He is one of the longest serving Chief Justices and the fourth longest-serving justice in the history of the US Supreme Court. As a lawyer, he was well-versed in the subject and played a dominant role as a judge for over a period of three decades. He is credited with elevating the position of the American judicial system and making it an independent body. He stressed on the importance of Federal Laws over State Laws. One of the greatest admirers of George Washington, Marshall also served in the American military during the American Revolutionary War. As an immensely loyal Federalist, Marshall saw the Constitution as an instrument of national unity and federal power. He served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the administrations of six Presidents - John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
From 1782 to 1789, he served in the Virginia House of Delegates after which he was elected again and served there for the second term. He was also elected to serve on the Council of State in The Virginia General Assembly.
In 1788, as a delegate at the Virginia Convention, he was assigned the task to ratify or reject pointers in the United States Constitution - he led the fight for ratification.
In 1786, he successfully represented the heirs of Lord Fairfax in ‘Hite v. Fairfax’, which was an important case involving a large tract of land. He was also involved in the ‘Ware v. Hylton’ case.
In 1799, he served at the U.S. House of Representatives for a brief period after being appointed the secretary of state under President, John Adams.
The appointment of John Marshall as the chief justice was confirmed by the Senate on January 27, 1801, and he received his commission on January 31, 1801.
In 1803, he presided over the landmark ‘Marbury v. Madison’ case, which established the basis of judicial review.
In 1807, he presided over ‘the Burr trial’ of former Vice president Aaron Burr who was charged with ‘treason’ and ‘high misdemeanour’. The jury acquitted the defendant, Burr in the case.
In 1819, he presided over the ‘McCulloch v. Maryland’ case, which was one of his most notable cases, after which Maryland was not permitted to charge tax.
In 1821, he presided over the ‘Cohens v. Virginia’ case. This case played a major role in establishing parameters in case of conflicting local and state laws.
John Marshall was born in Germantown, Virginia, to Thomas Marshall, soldier and politician and Mary Randolph Keith. He was the eldest of eight sisters and six brothers.
He was mostly home-schooled by his father and later attended the Campbell Academy for a period of one year.
During his teenage years, he was completely enamoured by George Washington, whose influence also inspired him to join the military during the American Revolutionary War.
From 1775 to 1776, he served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War as a Lieutenant in the ‘Culpeper Minutemen’ and later served as a Lieutenant and then as a Captain in the Eleventh Virginia Continental Regiment.
In 1782, he married Mary Willis Ambler and the couple had ten children together. Two of their children died before they reached adulthood.
He spent most part of his life in his home in Richmond, Virginia that he constructed in 1790.
He was operated for the removal of bladder stones at the age of 76.
In 1831, his wife passed away and thereafter he suffered from several health problems and his mental situation also deteriorated.
He died at the age of 79, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he had travelled to take medical treatment. He was laid to rest at the Shockoe Hill Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.
In 1899, The John Marshall Law School was set up in Chicago in his honour. The law school is accredited by the American Bar Association. On September 24, 1955, the United States Postal Service issued a postage stamp in his honour.