Historical Personalities » Emperors & Kings » SHIVAJI
|Full name||: Shivaji|
|Animals||: The Rabbit|
|Siblings||: Ekoji I, Sambhaji Shahaji Bhosale|
|Wife||: Sai Bhosale, Soyarabai, Putalabai, Gunvantibai, Sagunabai, Sakvarbai, Laxmibai, Kashibai|
|Children||: Sambhaji Bhosale, Rajaram Chhatrapati, Rajkunvarbai Shirke, Ambikabai Mahadik, Kamlabai Palkar, Ranubai Jadhav, Deepabai, Sakhubai Nimbalkar|
|Activists||: Emperors & Kings|
Shivaji was a legendary Maratha king, who established the Maratha kingdom in western India. Brought up under the able guidance of his mother and his father’s administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, he became a brave and powerful warrior, with military training in various fighting techniques. He plunged into conquests of forts and territories at the young age of 16, carrying out a number of successful expeditions. However, his combat with Bijapur Sultan’s general, Afzal Khan, at the Battle of Pratapgarh was his major blowout, following which he defeated the bigger forces of Bijapur at the Battle of Kolhapur, thereby establishing the Maratha dominance in the western region. His conflicts with the Mughal Empire resulted in the seizure of Pune, though he was later suppressed by the Mughal army, forcing him to sign the Treaty of Purandar and surrender a large number of his fortresses, followed by his arrest upon being invited at Agra. However, he escaped and avenged his defeat by recapturing the capitulated forts. Besides the Deccan, he also brought a number of provinces in South India under his reign. He crowned himself as the king of the Maratha kingdom and took upon the title Kshatriya Kulavantas Simhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
His army attacked the Bijapur Sultanate’s forces at the Battle of Pratapgarh killing over 3,000 soldiers and imprisoning two sons of Afzal Khan, besides seizing weapons, war-materials, horses and armor to further strengthen his army.
To curb down the emerging power of Shivaji, the Bijapur Sultan sent an army of 10,000 forces under Rustam Zaman in December 1659 but was defeated at the hands of the Maratha army at the Battle of Kolhapur.
Aurangzeb sent Rajput Raja Jai Singh to suppress Shivaji and succeeded in capturing various Maratha forts, thereby forcing him to surrender and sign the Treaty of Purandar in 1665, ceding 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals.
Shivaji Bhonsale was born in 1627 (or 1630) at Shivneri, a hill fort near Junnar, Pune, into a family of Maratha bureaucrats, to Shahji Bhonsale, a Maratha general in the army of the Bijapur Sultanate, and Jijabai.
His mother’s extremely religious nature made a great impact on his upbringing as he grew up studying Ramayana and Mahabharata and showed great interest in religious teachings, especially those of Hindu and Sufi saints.
He was brought up by his mother and his administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, who taught him horse riding, archery, marksmanship, patta and other fighting techniques after his father left for Karnataka with his second wife, Tukabai.
In 1640, he got married to Saibai, from the renowned Nimbalkar family, with whom he had four children – daughter Sakhubai (1651), daughter Ranubai (1653), daughter Ambikabai (1655) and son Sambhaji (1657).
His second marriage to Soyarabai was forcefully arranged by his stepmother, Tukabai, despite Jijabai’s consistent refusal. The couple had two children – daughter Balibai and son Rajaram.
He had several other wives, including Putalabai, Sakvarbai and Kashibai.
He died in April 1680 at Raigad Fort, after suffering from fever and dysentery for three weeks.
Though Soyarabai initially succeeded in crowning her son, Rajaram, as the next king, but Sambhaji captured Raigad Fort and ascended the throne in July 1680. Thereafter, he imprisoned Rajaram and Soyarabai and executed the latter.